While the HRP-4C was fitted with an uncanny humanoid face, the Actroid matches it with an equally realistic body and even more human behaviors. It was first manufactured by Kokoro Company Ltd., who have since created several new and improved versions. Using air-powered actuators placed at several points in her upper body, the Actroid can react accordingly to different kinds of tactile data. For example, if Actroid feels a slap coming, she can quickly move out of the way or retaliate, but will react normally when tapped on the shoulder. She is also designed to express the subtle human-like movements of the head and eyes and even looks like she’s breathing.
Actroids can be taught to learn even more human movements, though their actual locomotion abilities are non-existent and they can only be placed in a sitting or standing position with firm supports. In addition to their earlier Actroid model, Repliee Q-1, Kokoro has also created Repliee R-1, an Actroid of a small Japanese girl. Kokoro and a team at Osaka University say that their main goal is to create robots so realistic that people won’t notice they’re even interacting with a robot. So far, Actroids have come very close—some people mistake them for humans for the first few minutes. In addition to this, some people even forget they’re interacting with a robot at all because their movements and reactions are so realistic. A cousin to both Repliee Q-1 and R-1 is known as Geminoid, an android created by and fashioned at Hiroshi Ishiguro.